Because the spindle speed and range of CNC machine tools are much higher than that of ordinary machine tools, and the output power of the spindle is larger, compared with traditional machining methods, higher requirements are put forward for CNC machining tools, including high precision machining, high strength, and rigidity. Good, high durability, and require stable dimensions, easy installation, and adjustment. This requires reasonable tool structure, standardization, and serialization of geometric parameters. CNC tools are one of the prerequisites for improving machining efficiency. Its selection depends on the geometry of the processed parts, material conditions, fixtures, and the rigidity of the selected tools of the machine tool. The following aspects should be considered.
I. the selection method of the tool
1. Choose the tool according to the cutting performance of the part material. Such as turning or milling high-strength steel, titanium alloy, stainless steel parts, it is recommended to choose indexable carbide tools with good wear resistance.
2. Select the tool and geometric parameters according to the characteristics of the processing area. When the part structure allows, the tool with large diameter and small ratio of length to diameter should be selected; the end edge of the over-center milling cutter for cutting thin-walled and ultra-thin pendulum parts should have sufficient centripetal angle to reduce the cutting of the tool and the cutting part force. When processing aluminum, copper and other soft material parts, you should choose an end mill with a slightly larger rake angle, and the number of teeth should not exceed 4 teeth.
3. Select the tool according to the processing stage of the part. That is to say, the rough machining stage is mainly to remove the margin, and the tool with better rigidity and lower precision should be selected. The semi-finishing and finishing stages are mainly to ensure the machining accuracy and product quality of the parts, and the high durability and high precision should be selected. For high cutting tools, the precision of the cutting tool used in the roughing stage is the lowest, and the cutting tool used in the finishing stage has the highest precision. If you choose the same tool for roughing and finishing, it is recommended to choose the tool eliminated by finishing during roughing, because most of the tool wear eliminated by finishing is slight wear of the blade, and the coating is worn and polished. Continued use will affect the finishing Machining quality, but the influence on rough machining is small.
II. Factors affecting the selection of CNC tools.
1. The nature of production
The nature of production here refers to the batch size of the parts, which mainly considers the impact on tool selection from the processing cost. For example, cnc machine shop，it may be cost-effective to use special tools in mass production, while in single or small batch production, it is more suitable to choose standard tools.
2. CNC machining plan
Different CNC machining programs can use different types of tools. For example, drilling and reaming can be used for hole processing, or drilling and boring tools can be used for processing.
3. Type of machine tool
The influence of the CNC machine tool used to complete the process on the selected tool type (drill, turning tool or milling tool). Under the condition that the rigidity of the workpiece system and the tool system can be guaranteed, high-productivity tools, such as high-speed cutting tools and large-feed tools, are allowed.
4. Processing surface roughness
The surface roughness of the machined affects the structure shape and cutting amount of the tool. For example, rough milling cutters can be used for rough milling of blanks, and fine-tooth milling cutters are best used for finishing milling.
5. Machining accuracy
The machining accuracy affects the type and structure of the finishing tool. For example, the final machining of the hole can be processed with a drill, a reaming drill, a reamer or a boring tool according to the accuracy of the hole.
6. The size and shape of the workpiece
The size and shape of the workpiece also affect the selection of tool types and specifications. For example, special tools must be used to process special-shaped surfaces.
7. Workpiece material
The workpiece material will determine the choice of tool material and geometric parameters of the cutting part. The tool material is related to the machining accuracy and material hardness of the workpiece.
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