Precision cnc machining technology is an advanced manufacturing technology developed to meet the needs of modern high-tech and is the basis for other high-tech implementations. The development of precision processing technology has also promoted the development of machinery, hydraulics, electronics, semiconductors, optics, sensors and measurement technology, and materials science.
I. Technical means of precision cnc machining
1. Precision cutting
High-precision machine tools and single crystal diamond cutting tools are mainly used for precision processing of soft metals such as copper and aluminum that are not suitable for grinding. They also have good optical properties.
A kind of micro-processing on the surface of the workpiece by mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical methods. It is mainly used to reduce the surface roughness of the workpiece. Commonly used methods are: manual or mechanical polishing, ultrasonic polishing, chemical polishing, electrochemical polishing, and electrochemistry. Mechanical compound processing, etc.
3. Abrasive belt grinding
The use of abrasive-bonded blended fabrics as abrasive tools to process workpieces belongs to the category of coated abrasives. It has the characteristics of high productivity, good surface quality, and wide range of use. Foreign countries have made great achievements in abrasive belt materials and production processes. With abrasive belt series suitable for different occasions, general and special abrasive belt grinders have been produced, and the degree of automation has been continuously improved, but there are few domestic abrasive belt varieties. The quality also needs to be improved, and the machine tool is still in the transformation stage.
4. Precision grinding and polishing
Through the abrasive and processing fluid between the workpiece and the tool, the workpiece and the grinding tool are mechanically rubbed against each other to make the workpiece reach the required size and precision.
II. The development trend of precision cnc machining
1. High precision and high efficiency
High precision and high efficiency are the eternal theme of ultra-precision machining. In general, fixed abrasive grain processing continuously pursues the processing accuracy of free abrasive grains, while free abrasive grain processing continuously pursues the efficiency of fixed abrasive grain processing. Although the current ultra-precision machining technologies such as CMP and EEM can achieve extremely high surface quality and surface integrity, they are guaranteed by sacrificing processing efficiency. Although ultra-precision cutting and grinding technology has high processing efficiency, it cannot obtain the processing accuracy such as CMP and EEM. Exploring processing methods that can balance efficiency and precision has become the goal of researchers in the field of ultra-precision processing. The emergence of semi-fixed abrasive grain processing methods reflects this trend. On the other hand, it shows the birth of composite processing methods such as electrolytic magnetic grinding and magnetorheological abrasive flow machining.
2. Process integration
Nowadays, the competition among enterprises is becoming fierce, and high production efficiency has increasingly become a condition for enterprises to survive. In this context, there have been calls for "replacement of research with grinding" and even "replacement of throwing with grinding". On the other hand, the trend of using one equipment to complete a variety of processing (such as turning, drilling, milling, grinding, and finishing) is becoming more and more obvious.
3. Large-scale and miniaturized
To process large-scale optoelectronic devices (such as mirrors on large-scale astronomical telescopes) required by aviation, aerospace, aerospace, and other fields, it is necessary to build large-scale ultra-precision processing equipment. To process micro-devices (such as micro-sensors, micro-drive components, etc.) required in the fields of micro-electronic machinery, optoelectronic information, etc., micro-ultra-precision processing equipment is required (but this does not mean that processing micro-small workpieces must require micro-small processing equipment)
The current precision ultra-precision machining technology will continue to develop new theories, new processes and new methods, and will develop in the direction of high efficiency and extremeness, and will run through the entire manufacturing process of parts or the entire product development process, and develop toward precision ultra-precision manufacturing technology. . With the continuous development and progress of my country's basic technology such as precision and ultra-precision machining, it will lay the foundation for intelligent manufacturing technology, and finally realize the leap from a big manufacturing country to a strong manufacturing country.
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