Lathe processing mainly uses a turning tool to turn a rotating workpiece. Lathes are mainly used to process shafts, discs, sleeves and other workpieces with rotating surfaces. They are the most widely used type of machine tool processing in machinery manufacturing and repair factories.
The cutting energy of turning is mainly provided by the workpiece rather than the tool. Turning is suitable for machining revolving surfaces. Most workpieces with revolving surfaces can be processed by turning methods, such as inner and outer cylindrical surfaces, inner and outer conical surfaces, end faces, grooves, threads, and revolving forming surfaces. The tools used are mainly turning tools.
Among all kinds of metal cutting machine tools, lathes are the most widely used, accounting for about 50% of the total number of machine tools. The lathe can not only use turning tools to turn the workpiece, but also use drills, reamers, taps and knurling tools for drilling, reaming, tapping and knurling operations.
Milling is to fix the blank and use a high-speed rotating milling cutter to move on the blank to cut out the required shapes and features. Traditional milling is mostly used to mill simple shape features such as contours and grooves. CNC milling machines can process complex shapes and features. The milling and boring machining center can perform three-axis or multi-axis milling and boring processing, which is used for processing, molds, inspection tools, molds, thin-walled complex curved surfaces, artificial prostheses, blades, etc. When selecting the content of CNC milling processing, the advantages and key functions of the CNC milling machine should be brought into full play.
Milling is a common metal cold processing method. The difference from turning is that the tool rotates at a high speed under the drive of the spindle during milling, while the workpiece is relatively stationary.
The method of cutting the surface of a workpiece with a grinding wheel on a grinder is called grinding, which is one of the main methods of precision machining of parts. Grinding is mainly used for finishing the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces, inner and outer conical surfaces, planes and forming surfaces (such as splines, threads, gears, etc.) of parts to obtain higher dimensional accuracy and lower surface roughness. Several common grinding surfaces are shown in Figure 2-41. In the processing of parts on the grinder, the grinding wheel makes high-speed rotating motion. Depending on the surface of the processed workpiece, some of the workpieces make a rotary motion, and some make a reciprocating linear motion.
IV. CNC machining center
CNC machining center is a kind of CNC machining machine with more functions. It concentrates the functions of milling, boring, drilling, tapping and cutting threads on one device, so that it has a variety of technological means.
The CNC machining center is equipped with a tool magazine, which stores different quantities of various tools or inspection tools, which are automatically selected and replaced by the program during the machining process.
The comprehensive processing ability of the CNC machining center is relatively strong. After the workpiece is clamped at a time, more processing contents can be completed. The processing accuracy is high. The efficiency of batch workpieces with medium processing difficulty is 5-10 times that of ordinary equipment, especially it It can complete many processings that cannot be done by ordinary equipment, and it is more suitable for single-piece processing with more complex shapes and high precision requirements or for small and medium batch multi-variety production.
V. Complex surface processing
For the processing of complex curved surfaces, CNC machine tools come in handy. The cutting processing of three-dimensional curved surfaces mainly adopts copy milling and numerical control milling methods or special processing methods. Copy milling must have a prototype as a model. During processing, the ball-end profiling head keeps contacting the prototype surface with a certain pressure. The movement of the profiling head is transformed into an inductance, and the machining amplification controls the movement of the three axes of the milling machine to form the trajectory of the cutter head along the curved surface. The milling cutter mostly uses a ball-end milling cutter with the same radius as the profiling head. The emergence of numerical control technology provides a more effective method for surface processing.
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