What are Precision Machining Components and 5 Processes?

cnc machining


Precision machining involves the removal of excess material from a component or a part to make a final product with tight tolerance. It results in the production of different elements through various processes. In this article, we will discuss the components and the processes of precision machining.

What are precision machining components?

Components that can generate through precision machining are known as precision machining components. This process not only produces significant components but can also produce a variety of small components. These high-quality components possess tight tolerance and high accuracy. You can use these components to cut a large variety of materials with higher accuracy effectively. These materials may include:

  • Steel
  • Copper
  • Aluminum
  • Plastics

Different manufacturing industries are using these components to cut various materials for making products with fewer chances of errors. Precision machining components usually show precise conditions and have complex features. They are primarily composed of tapers, grooves, threads, and holes.
These features allow the small precision components to fit precisely with other ingredients, and this fitting of the parts will enable them to function correctly. This property makes these parts to use in various industries.
Because of extreme precision and accuracy, these components/parts can use in aerospace, medical, electronics, and solar and wind industries.

Precision Machining Processes:

Following processes can use to produce precision machining components.

1- Rough Machining

In rough machining, a large amount of material removes from a workpiece. As a result, the desirable form produced is rough rather than explicit. The resulting rough workpiece possesses high productivity, rugged appearance, and surface and low accuracy. The primary purposes of rough machining are a significant feed rate and quick removal of the blank allowance. It is considered a preparation process from semi-finishing and finishing.


Advantages of rough machining

Rough machining has the following benefits.

  • It quickly detects the blank defects, so they are repaired quickly.
  • It saves material by removing excess material before the finishing stage.
  • The roughing process can perform in one setup, so it helps in saving both time and money.

2- Semi-Precision Machining

Semi-finished precision machining is a manufacturing phase where substantive additional fabrication operations are required to transform components/parts into a finished part. This finished part will be ready for ultimate use and assembly. Semi-finished components include cylinders, flow parts, tool joints, motor housings, collars, stator tubes, and forgings.

Advantages of Semi-Precision machining

  • Semi-finish CNC machining produces high-quality output for the right equipment.
  • This method has a very less margin of error on all finish dimensions.
  • It is an easy and simple step and removes an excess material layer.
  • This semi-finish method ensures allowance for finishing work and treating secondary surfaces.
  • It can reduce lead time and can meet the customer's needs.
  • It ensures precise execution for each phase of manufacturing of components.

3- Precision Machining

Precision machining removes the material from the workpiece to produce high-quality parts. The resulting component has the excellent surface quality and tight tolerance to reduce the chances of errors. It includes various processes such as grinding, gear cutting, milling, and drilling, and it may also involve specific heat treatments such as tempering, quenching, and carburizing.


Advantages of precision machining

  • It produces parts with high accuracy.
  • The chances of errors in the fabricated parts are meager.
  • The resulting components are more precise and efficient.
  • Material wastage during the process is very low.
  • It is cost-effective.

4- Fine Surface Finishing

Fine surface finishing includes various manufacturing processes that help improve the final product's appearance. Moreover, it also enhances the strength of the material. It works by adding, removing, reshaping, and altering the material. It can perform through electrical, chemical, or mechanical means. Following are some standard exemplary surface finishing processes.

  • Polishing
  • Electroplating
  • Dip coating
  • Electropolishing
  • Sanding
  • Buffing
  • Painting


Advantages of fine surface finishing

  • It can improve the appearance of the final product
  • This method can increase corrosion resistance.
  • Fine surface finishing can increase chemical resistance.
  • You can improve the material's conductivity.
  • This process can remove the defects.

5- Ultra-Precision Machining

In ultra-precision machining, the final parts have an excellent finish, which is almost impossible with any other machining technology. It includes processing the material at its lower scale. Therefore, this process is also known as the "atomic bit.
A high energy density is required for processing and removing atomic bits. Conventional cutting tools cannot do it due to a lack of enough hardness and high strength. So, this process can complete through single crystal diamond tools.


Advantages of ultra-precision machining

  • You can produce parts with the highest accuracy.
  • Ultra-precision machining has a low rate of errors.
  • This method is cheap as compared to other methods.


Precision machining components are widely used worldwide in various industries due to their tight tolerances, high accuracy, and precision.
Different processes are involved in producing these high-quality components, such as rough machining, semi-precision machining, fine surface finishing, and ultraprecision machining. The industries are undoubtedly taking their business to the next level using precision machining components and processes.


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