The analysis of the CNC machining process of parts is the most important link in the preparation of CNC programs. From the drawing design to the qualified delivery of the finished product, not only the preparation of the CNC program, but also the influence of various problems in the processing must be considered. Therefore, before programming, it is necessary to conduct a detailed analysis of the design drawings and technical requirements to obtain the best processing plan.
I. The structure and craftsmanship of each processing part of the part should conform to the characteristics of CNC machining.
1. It is better to adopt uniform geometric types and dimensions for the cavity and shape of parts. This can reduce the tool specifications and the number of tool changes, make programming easier, and improve production efficiency.
2. The fillet size of the inner groove determines the size of the tool diameter, so the fillet radius of the inner groove should not be too small. The manufacturability of the parts is related to the height of the processed contour and the size of the transition arc radius. 3. When the part is milling the bottom plane, the fillet radius of the groove bottom should not be too large.
3. When the part is milling the bottom plane, the fillet radius of the groove bottom should not be too large.
4. It is best to adopt a unified standard positioning. In CNC machining, if there is no unified reference positioning, the contour position and size of the two faces after machining will be inconsistent due to the reinstallation of the workpiece.
II. The status analysis of the blank
Most part design drawings only define the shape and size of the part during processing, but do not specify the data of the original blank material, including the type, specification, shape, heat treatment state, and hardness of the blank. When programming, an in-depth understanding of the wool is an important start. Using this original information is conducive to NC program planning.
1. Product assembly drawing and part drawing analysis
For the analysis and research of the assembly drawing, it is mainly to be familiar with the performance, use and working conditions of the product, to clarify the mutual assembly position and function of the parts in the product, to understand the basis for the formulation of various technical conditions on the part drawing, and to find out its main technical keys Problems, lay the foundation for the formulation of the correct processing plan. Of course, when the process analysis of ordinary parts is carried out, the analysis and research of the assembly drawing may not be carried out.
III. Process analysis of parts drawing
The analysis and research of the part drawing is mainly to review the process of the parts, such as checking the view, dimensioning, and technical requirements of the design drawing for errors or omissions, especially for parts with poor structural manufacturability, if possible, respond to the design The personnel communicate or put forward suggestions for modification, and the designer decides whether to make necessary modifications and improvements.
(1) Analysis of the completeness and correctness of the part drawing
The view of parts should meet the requirements of national standards, the position should be accurate, and the expression should be clear; the relationship between geometric elements (points, lines, surfaces) (such as tangency, intersection, parallel) should be accurate; dimensions should be complete and clear.
(2) Analysis of technical requirements for parts
The technical requirements of parts mainly include dimensional accuracy, shape accuracy, position accuracy, surface roughness and heat meter treatment requirements, etc. These technical requirements should be the limit value under the premise of ensuring the performance of the part. The analysis of the technical requirements of parts is mainly to analyze the rationality of these technical requirements and the possibility of realization, focusing on the analysis of the processing accuracy and technical requirements of important surfaces and parts, and prepare for the formulation of a reasonable processing plan. At the same time, through analysis to determine whether the technical requirements are too strict, because too high precision and too small surface roughness requirements will complicate the process, increase the difficulty of processing, and increase unnecessary costs.
(3) Analysis of dimensioning method
The dimensioning methods of the part drawing include the local scattered labeling method, the centralized labeling method and the coordinate labeling method. For parts processed on a CNC machine tool, the dimensions on the part drawing should be marked collectively or marked with the same datum (ie, coordinate dimensions) as far as possible under the premise of ensuring the use performance. This facilitates the preparation of CNC programs. It is also conducive to the unification of design benchmarks, process benchmarks and programming origin.
(4) Analysis of parts and materials
Under the premise of satisfying the function of the parts, cheap materials should be selected, and the selection of materials should be based on the domestic, and do not lightly choose expensive and scarce materials.
(5) Analysis of the structural technology of parts
The structural manufacturability of the part refers to the feasibility and economy of the designed part under the premise of meeting the performance requirements. Good structural manufacturability will make parts easy to process, save costs, and save materials; while poor structural manufacturability will make processing difficult, increase costs, waste materials, and even impossible to process. Through the process of analyzing the structural characteristics, precision requirements and complexity of the parts, the required processing methods and the types and specifications of the CNC machine tools can be determined
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