CNC machining is an advanced processing technology in today's mechanical manufacturing, and it is an automated processing method with high efficiency, high precision and high flexibility. It is to input the numerical control program of the workpiece to be processed into the machine tool. Under the control of these data, the machine tool automatically processes the workpiece according to people's wishes to produce exquisite products.
THE DEVELOPMENT TREND OF CNC MACHINE TOOLS
I. High speed
With the rapid development of industries such as automobiles, defense, aviation, and aerospace, as well as the application of new materials such as aluminum alloys, the requirements for high-speed machining of CNC machine tools are getting higher and higher.
1. Spindle speed: The machine tool adopts an electric spindle (built-in spindle motor), and the maximum speed of the spindle reaches 200,000r/min.
2. Feed rate: when the resolution is 0.01µm, the maximum feed rate reaches 240m/min and complex precision machining can be obtained.
3. Operation speed: The rapid development of microprocessors provides a guarantee for the development of numerical control systems in the direction of high speed and high precision. The development of CPUs has developed to 32-bit and 64-bit numerical control systems, and the frequency has been increased to several hundreds of megahertz and above gigahertz. Due to the greatly improved calculation speed, the feed speed of up to 24～240m/min can still be obtained when the resolution is 0.1µm and 0.01µm.
4. Tool change speed: At present, the tool change time of foreign advanced machining centers has generally been around 1s, and the high has reached 0.5s. The German Chiron company designed the tool magazine into a basket style, with the spindle as the axis, and the tools arranged on the circumference. The tool-to-tool change time is only 0.9s.
II. Functional composite
The meaning of the compound machine tool is to realize or complete as much as possible the processing of multiple elements from the rough to the finished product on a machine tool. According to its structural characteristics, it can be divided into two types: process compound type and process compound type. The machining center can complete various processes such as turning, milling, drilling, gear hobbing, grinding, laser heat treatment, etc., and can complete all the processing of complex parts. With the continuous improvement of modern machining requirements, a large number of multi-axis linkage CNC machine tools are increasingly welcomed by major enterprises.
III. high precision
The accuracy requirements of CNC machine tools are now not limited to static geometric accuracy. The motion accuracy, thermal deformation, and vibration monitoring and compensation of machine tools are getting more and more attention.
1. Improve CNC system control accuracy: adopt high-speed interpolation technology, realize continuous feed with tiny program segments, refine CNC control unit, and adopt high-resolution position detection device to improve position detection accuracy. Feed control and nonlinear control methods.
2. Adopt error compensation technology: adopt backlash compensation, screw pitch error compensation and tool error compensation technology to comprehensively compensate the thermal deformation error and space error of the equipment.
3. Use a grid decoder to check and improve the accuracy of the motion trajectory of the machining center: predict the machining accuracy of the machine tool through simulation to ensure the positioning accuracy and repeat positioning accuracy of the machine tool, so that its performance is stable for a long time, and it can complete multiple operations under different operating conditions. Kind of processing tasks, and to ensure the processing quality of parts.
IV. Open system
1. Open to future technology: As the software and hardware interfaces follow the recognized standard protocol, it can adopt, absorb and be compatible with a new generation of general-purpose software and hardware.
2. Open to users' special requirements: update products, expand functions, and provide various combinations of hardware and software products to meet special application requirements.
3. The establishment of numerical control standards: standardized programming languages are not only convenient for users to use, but also reduce labor consumption directly related to operating efficiency.
V. Extremes (large-scale and miniaturized)
The development of defense, aviation, and aerospace industries and the large-scale equipment of basic industries such as energy require the support of large-scale and good-performance CNC machine tools. Ultra-precision processing technology and micro-nano technology are strategic technologies in the 21st century, and it is necessary to develop new manufacturing processes and equipment that can adapt to micro-mini size and micro-nano processing precision.
Since entering the 21st century, with the continuous development of CNC technology and the expansion of application fields, it has played an increasingly important role in the development of some important industries (IT, automotive, light industry, medical, etc.) of the national economy and people’s livelihood, because these industries The digitization of required equipment is a major trend of modern development.
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