I. CNC precision machining mainly includes fine turning, fine boring, fine milling, fine grinding and grinding processes:
(1) Fine turning and fine boring: Most of the precision light alloy (aluminum or magnesium alloy, etc.) parts in the aircraft are processed by this method. Generally, natural single crystal diamond tools are used. The radius of the blade arc is less than 0.1 microns. Precision lathe processing can obtain 1 micron accuracy and average height difference less than 0.2-micron surface unevenness, and the coordinate accuracy can reach ±2 micron.
(2) Finishing milling: used for processing complex-shaped aluminum or beryllium alloy structural parts, relying on the accuracy of the machine tool's guide rail and spindle to obtain high mutual position accuracy, and high-speed milling with a carefully ground diamond head Precise mirror surface.
(3) Fine grinding: used for machining shaft or hole parts. Most of these parts are made of hardened steel, which has high hardness. Most high-precision grinding machine spindles use static pressure or dynamic pressure liquid bearings to ensure high stability. The ultimate accuracy of grinding is not only affected by the rigidity of the machine tool spindle and bed, but also related to the selection and balance of the grinding wheel, and the machining accuracy of the center hole of the workpiece. Fine grinding can obtain a dimensional accuracy of 1 micron and an out-of-roundness of 0.5 micron. degree.
(4) Grinding: The irregular protrusions on the surface to be processed are selectively processed by the principle of mutual research of mating parts. The diameter of abrasive particles, cutting force and cutting heat can be accurately controlled, so it is the highest precision in precision processing technology. processing method. The hydraulic or pneumatic matching parts of the precision servo components of the aircraft, and the bearing parts of the dynamic pressure gyro motor are all processed in this way to achieve an accuracy of 0.1 or even 0.01 microns and a microscopic unevenness of 0.005 microns.
Precision parts processing plays an irreplaceable role in the development of new products. Generally speaking, parts of different complexity can be processed by programming, but modification and renewal of design only need to change the program of the lathe. This can greatly shorten the product development cycle.
II. Therefore, when processing parts, you must first understand the relevant processing technology, formulate a suitable processing plan, and conduct in-depth research and analysis of the CNC machining process of the parts. First of all, when performing CNC machining on parts, it is necessary to select a suitable CNC machine tool and perform operations on the CNC machine tool. And determine what the processing procedure is, and then formulate a suitable processing plan for the CNC machining of the parts. Analyze the drawings of the parts to be processed, perform parts on the processing content of the parts, and adopt appropriate processing techniques. The most important thing in the machining of parts is to design the process of parts processing, which is related to the quality of the parts. We must be clear about the steps of the part processing procedure, determine the selection of benchmarks, the selection of processing tools, the selection and installation of fixtures, and the processing strategies and process parameters in order to formulate the most suitable processing technology. In addition, we must compile and test the NC programming of the machining of parts, control programming errors, and improve programming quality and efficiency.
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