I. Physical and chemical properties of aluminum alloy material itself:
Aluminum alloy material has high reflectivity and high thermal conductivity. In terms of microscopic electronic structure, aluminum alloy has many free electrons, and the density is unreasonable. When the laser acts on such electrons, it will produce strong vibration and generate secondary electromagnetic waves. Causes strong reflected waves and weaker transmitted waves. Therefore, the surface of the aluminum alloy surface has a strong reflectivity to the laser and affects its absorption rate of the laser. At the same time, the intense Brownian motion of the electrons will significantly increase the effect of the aluminum alloy material. The conduction of heat.
A lot of research have been done on the laser welding of aluminum alloy materials in China, and the results have also proved that the welding of aluminum alloy materials requires surface pretreatment, such as sandblasting, sandpaper treatment, surface chemical etching, surface plating, carbon Black addition, oxidation, etc. can achieve the effect of reducing the beam reflection, effectively improving the absorption rate of the laser beam of the aluminum alloy workpiece. In addition, considering the design of the welding structure, artificial holes are made on the surface of the aluminum alloy or the light collector is used as a joint , V-shaped wave port or tailor welding (splicing gap is equivalent to manual hole making) method can increase the absorption of aluminum alloy to laser, obtain greater penetration depth, and can also use reasonable design of welding gap to increase the surface of aluminum alloy Absorption of laser energy.
I. Aluminum alloy processing method
The general term for aluminum-based alloys. The main alloying elements are Cu, Si, Mg, Sn, and the minor ones are nickel, titanium, chromium, and lithium. The aluminum alloy has low density, good plasticity and can be processed into forming materials. It has excellent electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The alloy formed by adding certain elements can maintain the advantages of pure aluminum, such as light weight, and also have high strength. This makes its "specific strength" better than many alloy steels, making it an ideal structural material. It is widely used in machinery manufacturing, transportation machinery, power machinery and aviation industry. Airframes, skins, compressors, etc. are often made of aluminum. It is made of alloy to reduce its own weight. Using aluminum alloy instead of steel plate material welding, the structure weight can be reduced by more than 50%. Classification of aluminum alloy processing methods: Fractal deformation aluminum alloy and cast aluminum alloy according to the processing method.
1. Deformed aluminum alloy:
Deformable aluminum alloys are divided into non-heat-treatable reinforced aluminum alloys and heat-treatable reinforced aluminum alloys, and their strength and hardness are not high. The difficulty of cutting is that it has high plasticity. It is easy to form a built-up edge during cutting, and it is difficult to obtain good performance. The mechanical performance can be improved by heat treatment. It can only be strengthened by cold working deformation. It mainly includes high-purity aluminum and industrial high-purity. Aluminum, industrial pure aluminum and anti-rust aluminum, etc.
2. Cast aluminum alloy:
Cast aluminum alloy has low plasticity, and its elongation is generally below 4%. It is not suitable for pressure processing, and most of them are processed by cutting. Silicon aluminum alloy has good casting properties and excellent mechanics. It is the most widely used cast aluminum alloy. Among them, the machinability of silicon aluminum alloy is related to the silicon content. The higher the content, the worse the tool wear and the worse the processing performance. Cast aluminum alloys can be quenched and aging treated to improve their mechanical properties, including duralumin, forged aluminum, super-duralumin, and special aluminum alloys.
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